[the university] represents the pinnacle of Western, humanistic endeavors, the broad quest for the advancement of human knowledge regardless of disciplinary boundaries and at the risk of challenging the comfortable and the known’ (Slavin 2007).
The readings for the seminar included Ellenberger’s Discovery of the Uncon- scious (1970); Freud: Darkness in the Midst of Vision by Breger (2000); Jung and the Making of Modern Psychology by Shamdasani (2003); and Kirsch’s The Jungians (2000). Acquaintance with Memories, Dreams, Reflections (Jung 1963) and one major biography of Jung was required. Articles by K. Eisold and D. Kirsner on the vicissitudes of analytic institutes were provided, as well as many others that added to the general background. Seminar participants took turns in presenting the material, and a paper was required at the end of the series.
My introductory lecture was intended to set the tone and frame the series, and in order to convey the atmosphere I will describe the seminar process in some detail.
First I brought in a round mirror about three feet (a metre) in diameter and sat it on the floor at the centre of our circled chairs in the seminar room. Then I placed a wine cork in the middle of the mirror and asked the question, ‘How does this cork get to know itself?’ Eventually I added several other corks of different colours and posed the same question.
As you might imagine, there was an initial silence with some puzzled looks. The sense of the mirror’s power predominated at first. It felt a bit uncanny. They soon began to play with it as a metaphorical display of the culture and history into which we are all originally ‘thrown’. They said such things as, ‘Then, do we become what we see in the mirror, what’s mirrored back to us?’ ‘Do we imitate our reflections?’ ‘It feels like we’re prisoners of our reflections!’
This eventuated in wondering whether we can know anything except in terms of what we see in the mirror. Does this context determine how we see ourselves as well as others? Is the individual ever ‘free’ from a context? ‘How does the self emerge out of this. . .or is it already there?’
The image of embeddedness with its mind-boggling questions set a tone that stuck with the participants over time. ‘Embeddedness’ became a leitmotif for the seminar.
Following upon the mirror example, I provided some perspectives on the study of history and culture. For instance:
- (Jung 1946, paras. 340-42). In CW 8, The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche, Jung expressed how difficult it is to detect the philosophical assumptions of one’s own time: ‘We must ask ourselves how the spirit of an age gains such uncanny power. . . it is. . .a prejudice so deeply rooted that until we give it proper consideration we cannot even approach the problem of the [individual] psyche. . . It is an ethnopsychological problem, and as such
cannot be treated in terms of individual (my italics) consciousness. . .’
- (Greenberg 2001): ‘For better or worse, ours is not a discipline in which new discoveries are likely to be made. . . Every one of our major themes has been explored and written about for over two thousand years. . . When we see ourselves as knowing something never known before, we run the risk of cutting ourselves off from our history, both the hundred-year history of
psychoanalysis and the larger history of discourse in the humanities’.
- (Bakhtin 1986, p. 146): ‘There can be neither a first nor a last meaning; [anything that can be understood] always exists among other meanings as a link in the chain of meaning, which in its totality is the only thing that can be real. In historical life this chain continues infinitely, and therefore each link in it is renewed again and again, as though it were being reborn’.
After this introductory material, I proceeded to a more specific study of history and historiography by discussing the evolution of ‘modernity’ over the last 400 years, along with the emergence of late modernity or the ‘post-modern’. Steven Toulmin’s book Cosmopolis (1990) was the main source in describing the transition from the ‘pre-modern’, to the ‘modern’, to the ‘post-modern’.
According to Toulmin, Renaissance modernity emerged during the late 1400s to the early 1600s, which he also terms the pre-modern. An urbane open- mindedness and sceptical tolerance were novel features of a new lay culture. Human modesty alone, they argued, should teach us the limitations of our ability to reach unquestioned ‘truth’ or unqualified ‘certainty’. Influenced by Aristotle, theoretical issues were balanced by attention to practice and context.
In the first half of the17th Century, the Thirty Years War, a little ice age in Europe, and an economic depression following the end of Spain’s plunder of its American colonies contributed to deepened cultural anxiety. Toulmin’s view is that, in response to this situation, a ‘counter-renaissance’ ensued, which gave birth to what we know as ‘modernity’.
Attitudes changed in important ways with the emergence of modernity. Most especially there was an increasing quest for ‘certainty’. Descartes was the symbolic figure of this search. Formal, logical truth became more valued than the embodied process of argument. There was a flight into the universal, and away from the particular. Emotion was increasingly seen as a lesser thing, a distraction from ‘truth’. Such views are parts of the mirror we have inherited, and they still prejudice our theories and practices (Scott 1998).
In our own time, factors such as the shocks of World Wars and genocide provoked a shift in the zeitgeist that Toulmin termed the ‘late modern’ or ‘post- modern’. It encompassed a spirit of scepticism about human perfection and a renewed emphasis on embodied contextuality. One could see this as a partial return to something resembling the pre-modern or renaissance modernity. There was a re-emphasis on discursive thought, on phenomenology, on particulars and ‘local knowledge’, and a stress on ethics and practice in philosophy. Last but not least ‘depth psychology’ emerged, with its emphasis on emotions and the non-rational.
This perspective helped candidate-members understand some of the conflicts between the modern and post-modern in contemporary analytical psychology. For instance, Jung searched for the certainty of a scientific psychology on the one hand, but on the other was all too aware of the limitations imposed by the ‘personal equation’ (Shamdasani 2003, pp. 30–31; pp. 75–77). This has been reflected in many of the theoretical issues discussed in the Journal of Analytical Psychology; for instance, the archetype as a timeless essence, as a ‘thing in itself’, versus the archetype as an emergent entity that is culturally and biologically embedded. Now when candidate-members read such articles they better understand the background and context of such issues.
I concluded my introductory lecture by repeating the questions that we might ponder during the course of the seminar: If all theories have their personal- historical-cultural biases, what does this say about all of our theorizing? What claims to ‘truth’ can we make? In what unconscious waters of history do we now swim? And how does the specific history of depth psychology affect us now, as reflected in our analytic institutions; how do we live it, and how does it live us?
We went on to study Henri Ellenberger’s Discovery of the Unconscious. The candidate-members responded very positively to the book’s richness of context and balanced perspective, as well as the author’s concept of ‘creative illness’. He portrayed depth psychology as originating in the personal emotional crises of its progenitors, and as the manifestation of their search for self- healing and meaning. Beginning with early shamanic practice, and continuing through hypnosis and the evolution of psychoanalysis, it is an ‘alive’ history, and provoked much animated discussion. The candidate-members were often excited to find, for instance, some of the similarities between Mesmer’s practices and some